Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability. The primary difficulty in dyslexia typically occurs at the sound-level of language, referred to as phonology. Without early intervention, difficulties in phonology will impact a student's ability to solidify instruction in the foundational aspects of reading - appreciating how words can sound the same or different, learning the alphabet, connecting sounds to letters, word decoding, and efficient word recognition (fluency). Deficits in phonology will also impact spelling, which requires connecting sound to the correct written representation of the sound. This pattern of difficulties is unexpected in what is known about a student's ability to learn in other areas (i.e., in the absence of print or in subjects where the emphasis is not on reading such as math and science).
What is dyslexia?
At the current time, evaluation and therapy services are primarily focused on students at the elementary to intermediate level (K-6). This is due to the need for different types of materials and/or testing instruments required for use with secondary students and adults.
What age levels are served?
The focus of T3 Educational Services is in the area of literacy - for both evaluations and therapy. Difficulties in the area of reading represent the most common reason students are identified with learning disabilities in the school setting. During an evaluation, however, math skills may be assessed in order to provide a more thorough understanding of the student's strengths and weaknesses.
What about math?
Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that results in disabled handwriting. The difficulty with handwriting can be due either to an impairment in graphomotor skills (fine-motor skills specific to the act of handwriting) and/or due to a language-based impairment in the student's ability to store written words in working memory while the letters are analyzed or the ability to create permanent memory of written words linked to their pronunciation and meaning (orthographic memory). A difficulty with orthographic memory will typically also impact a student's spelling skills (in a student without reading problems).
See the Fact Sheet, Understanding Dysgraphia, by the International Dyslexia Association (2012).